The Ural mountains - General information
The Ural mountains - a range between the East European and Western-Siberian plains. Length of the Ural mountains - more than 2000 km, width from 40 to 150 km.
In ancient sources the Ural mountains are called as Rifejsky or Hyperborejsky mountains. Russian trailblazers named its Stone, under a name Urals Mountains these mountains are mentioned for the first time in Russian sources in the end of XVII century. The name of the Ural introduced Century Tatishchev Mansi "ur" (mountain). The other version is the word of Turkic origin.
The Ural mountains were formed in the late Paleozoic in the era of intensive orogeny (Gercinsk folding). Formation of the mountain system The Urals began in the late Devonian (about 350 million years ago) and ended in the Triassic (about 200 million years ago). Within the Urals to the surface are deformed and often metamorphized rocks predominantly Paleozoic age. Thickness of sedimentary and volcanic rocks are usually strongly crumpled, violated breaks, but in General the meridional form of the strip, leading to linearity and zoning structures of the Ural mountains.
From West to East among the Ural mountains are distinguished:
- Preduralian regional deflection with a relatively flat deposition of sedimentary strata in the Western Board and more complex in the East;
- area of the Western slope of the Ural mountains with the development of intensive twisted and disturbed overlap sedimentary strata of the lower and middle Paleozoic;
- Central Ural uplift, where among the sedimentary formations of upper Paleozoic and Precambrian sometimes come out more ancient crystalline rocks, the edge of the East European platform;
- system of troughs of the Eastern slope performed mainly среднепалеозойскими volcanic fat and sea, often in deep water precipitation, and are breaking through their deep igneous rocks - the so-called green-stone belt of the Urals;
- Ural-Tobolsk anticlinorium with outputs of more ancient metamorphic rocks and extensive development of granitoids;
- East-Ural synclinorium.
The Ural mountains is a treasure trove of various minerals. In the Ural mountains present 48 kinds of mineral resources. For the Eastern part of the Ural mountains are the most characteristic of the Deposit base metal massive sulphide ores, titanium-magnetite, oxide Nickel ores and chromite ores, dedicated mainly to the green-stone belt of Ural mountains, deposits of coal (the Chelyabinsk coal basin), placers and indigenous reserves of gold and platinum.
Here there are the largest deposits of bauxite and asbestos. On the Western slope of the Ural mountains and in the Urals there are deposits of coal, oil and gas (Volga-Urals oil and gas area, the Orenburg gas-condensate field), potash (Verkhnekamskoe pool). Especially the Ural mountains are famous for their "gems" - precious, semi-precious and ornamental gemstones (emerald, amethyst, aquamarine, Jasper, rhodonite, malachite and other). Best Russian diamond jewelry were produced in the Urals.
In bowels of the Ural mountains contains more than two hundred different minerals, for example, bowls of the Petersburg Hermitage are made of the Ural malachite and a jasper.