Kungur ice cave
Pearl of nature, a true national treasure is Kungur ice cave - the seventh in the world for the length of gypsum caves, perhaps the first beauty. Magic underground lakes and gigantic caves, the poetry of ice and stone bring tourists to the fantastic world of ancient caves.
Scientists have defined the age of the cave 10-12 thousand years. During this time, due to numerous landslides vaults of most chambers of Kungur cave became dome-shaped.
The first studies in the cave were held in the distant 18th century. Today Ice cave is a nature monument of national importance, the only equipped for excursions cave Russia. It is located on the right Bank of the Sylva river in the Ice mountain in the North-Eastern outskirts of the town of Kungur, is a remarkable karst cave, the largest gypsum cave in the Ural region, the sixth in the world by length (5600 m) of gypsum karst caves. The total volume of cave grottoes more than 100 thousand cubic meters. In the cave 60 lakes with amazingly clear water.
The glaciation of the caves was the maximum in the 18th century. Multiyear ice met in the Meteor grotto at a distance of 440 meters from the entrance. Now multiyear ice is found up to the Crusade of the grotto 270 meters from the entrance. The state of the ice caves depends on the temperature regime created by natural ventilation. The lower the temperature on the surface, the greater the cave cold stores. Most beautiful places of the crystallization of ice grottoes are the Diamond and the Polar. Diamond grotto is decorated with especially large crystals tray and perforated form.
Beauty, greatness and history research caves are reflected in the names of grottos: the Diamond, Space, Dante, Ruins, Geologists, Bold, Giant, Polar and other Underground Kingdom of stalactites and stalagmites, frozen Symphony of stone and ice, greatness, and galactic silence - all this leaves an incomparable feeling. Therefore, since ancient times, the Kungurskaya cave is the pride of the inhabitants of Kungur.
When visitor guest happen to be in Kungur, it necessarily lead to watch rare natural wonder. The mere mention of Kungur conjures up many people extraordinary underground adventure, memorable sometimes since childhood.
In the beginning of the twentieth century, the entrance to the Ice cave was closed door, and visitors were accompanied by guides. The first “boss” and the Keeper of the cave, who has devoted her life was А.Т.Хлебников that from 1914 to 1951 led excursions, conducted work on improvement and engaged in the research of the cave. Largely thanks to this remarkable man began construction of the cave.
Currently length equipped for visiting by tourists, the route is about 1.5 km Input and output divided. Near the cave there is a tourist complex “Stalagmite”, consisting of hotel, restaurant, Parking.
Journey to the Ice cave.
Ice cave is one of the largest caves in Russia, with a length explored passages up to 5,700 meters, and the only equipped for visiting the cave in the country. Tourists have only 1,5 km landscaped concrete path. The rest, not counting the Small ring - a fallback option in case of floods, located within a protected area, which is left untouched for study and conservation for future generations. In the cave there are 58 grottos, 50 underground lakes and 146 “pipes”. Volume of all cavities cave more than 0,5 mln.ha Separate grottoes of the cave constantly decorated with large crystals of frost, fancy ice stalactites and stalagmites.
Before us the real story. No wonder the first grotto is called the Diamond. In the spotlight sparkle and shimmer colored lights, snow crystals sparkle like diamonds. The ceiling and the grotto walls are covered with a dense fringe frost. Sparkling crystal druses reach a diameter 10-15 see a Magnificent decoration of the underground hall does not disappear in the summer. Once on the street 30, there is still cool - -1,-2.
The snow is melting and dripping in cold caves, turns into ice stalagmites in the form of bars or mushrooms. From the ceiling of the caves and ledges of walls hanging icicles - ice stalactites. When stalagmites and stalactites grow together form ice pillars - stalagnates.
Here you can well consider the closed and open “pipes”. They look like giant hourglass: on the surface of the large crater, but in a cave talus of sand, clay, soil.
The best time to visit the caves is February, March and April. In may this decoration begins to melt, although in summer it is still cold enough: from 0 to -1 degrees.
Many people, even older, here comes trotting, showing enviable progress in the sprint. But it happens in the summer. And in winter, especially in the cold tourists go very slow, because the cave is much warmer, than on the street. They cannot believe that an hour they walked a mile and 20 chambers. Indeed, “happy hour is not monitored”.
No other cave has such a rich history and is not as famous in our country, as Kungur ice cave. This sublime plaster array with a smooth surface, which occupies about 10 sq. km, bounded on three sides взрезами river valleys Sylva and its tributary Шаквы. Ice mountain towers above the river on 80 meters. Often river comes from the banks, and bottled in a cave lakes, connecting in a single underground cistern with canals-moves. Depth of most of the lakes of the cave does not exceed three meters. The largest of the Big underground lake has an area of 1300 sq.m. and it contains about 2000 cubic m of water.
260 million years ago in Perm period of Earth's geological history the sea formed, which bordered along the Western slope of the Ural mountains from Northern seas to the present Caspian sea. In the water and on the bottom of the sea lived in a zillion marine organisms. Decaying, they left skeletons and shells, which mixed with the bottom silt, gradually forming a huge deposits. So there were layers of limestone, which are located at the base of the cave. In connection with the new raising of the Ural mountains grew shallow sea, leaving large bays. The climate in the Urals region in those days was warm, and the water in bays is evaporated. As brines deepened, the bottom dropped white plaster residue, which later became the rock - plaster. It took a million years. In the second half of the Permian period of the sea has left limits of the present Perm region.
Scientists have defined the age of the cave 10-12 thousand years. During this time, due to numerous landslides vaults of most chambers became dome-shaped form. Avalanches are observed in our time, especially after the flood. For example, in 1983 in the grotto Dante stone fell, breaking block of gypsum, which is still remembered by many tourists that resembled a monster. However, over 80 years of visiting the grotto, tourists not observed any accidents, though, according to the passed her millions of people, largely due to the mountainous service that checks the vaults over the path.
Excursions up the ice cave.
Kungur Ice cave is open daily, without days off from 9.00 till 16.00. Planned visits: 10.00 a.m. 12.00, 14.00, 16.00 - excursion; 11.00, 13.00, 15.00 - tour with the laser show; a group of 11 people - are accepted on a preliminary request. Ask all tourists visiting the cave in the hottest time to take warm clothes, because in the first grottoes of the cave cold (-2, -3 degrees below zero). The length of the main «Central» route - 1300 m, average passing time - 1 hour 20 minutes. During this time, the tourists will see 20 chambers, pass through three seasons: winter, spring, autumn, and winter again in the last Tower grotto. Have time to enjoy the snowy crystals Diamond grotto, ice stalagmites and stalactites grottoes «Polar», «Crusade», «Tower». As well as the non-freezing lakes, grottos «Friendship of peoples» and «Long». Bizarre «work» water, when, among the stone chaos tourists can easily find in the grotto of the Ruins of Pompeii a stone tortoise, crocodile, and other animals. Hear the story of how the formed Ice cave, who studied it, mastered, as well as interesting legend connected with the cave: the Ермаке, «Women's tears», etc.
During group excursions in order to ensure quality of service and to avoid interference with the activity of the guide, the work of an interpreter, accompanying foreign citizens, is prohibited.