Ilmen reserve: animals and plants
The richest "mineral box" of the world. This territory is rightly called the ecological heritage of the country, the reserve is on the list of the five most significant tourist places in Russia. He was honored for the fact that in a rather small area of the complex, over two hundred varieties of minerals, many of which are rare enough, have been collected.
Ilmen State Reserve named after V.I. Lenin is located in the Chelyabinsk region, near the city of Miass. The reserve zone is part of the South Ural Scientific Center of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
The total area of the reserve is 303.8 km², the length from north to south is more than 40 km. The highest point of the protected area was Mount Ilmentau, its peak is at an altitude of 748 meters. There are 30 water reservoirs on the territory of the protected area, the deepest of them is Lake Bolshoy Kisegach with a depth of 34 meters, and the longest is the Bolshaya Cheremshanka River, which stretches for 9.8 kilometers.
A protected area appeared thanks to the decree of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, who on 14 May 1920 declared the Ilmensky mountains a mineralogical reserve. They were the first in Russia protected area. Since 1930, the mineralogical museum has been working on the territory of the reserve, the founder of which was A.E. Fersman. The museum has collected more than 200 types of minerals found in the Ilmen Ridge. In the collection there are common and rare species, for example, topaz or amazonite.
Thanks to the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the reserve has acquired the status of a natural complex where scientific researches of geological, mineralogical and ecological-biological profiles are carried out, lectures on natural sciences are conducted to educate the local population, more than 3000 different kinds of animals and plants live.
A distinctive feature of the reserve can be considered a deposit of minerals. There are now more than 250 different species on the territory, and thanks to the research work, 18 new species that were not previously found in nature were discovered. The new minerals include: ilmenite, chiolite, chequinite, ilmenorutil, scrub, cancrinite, monazite, Poles, and others.
Animal World of the Reserve.
In addition to mineral and rock deposits, the Ilmen Reserve can boast a local fauna. More than 57 species of mammals live on its territory, the most widespread of them are moose and roe deer, wolves, foxes, spotted deer and wild boars, caresses, martens and ermines, moles and hedgehogs. Together with them the rodents settled comfortably: mouse-voles and hares, badgers, ferrets and squirrels, rats and three species of shrews, hamsters and ground squirrels.
The local nature is also rich in birds, 173 different species can be found within the boundaries of the protected area, with about 120 of them nesting in the reserve, and the rest are migratory. A special reason for the pride of local scientists is the presence of rare species, including golden eagles, swan swans, gray geese, wood grouses, black-throated loons, black grouse, hazel grouses. Ducks and geese are located near the water bodies, and cranes have settled down in the swampy areas. Not without the forest birds - in the shady grove live nightingales, woodpeckers, cuckoos and starlings.
Also in the protected area there are about 5 species of amphibians and reptiles, and there are up to 19 species of fish. The most widespread aquatic inhabitants are crustaceans, water insects, unicellular ones. From the fish family - roach, bream, crucian, whitefish, yazi, perch, pike, ruff, burbot, rudd, chechon.
The insects are full of variety, there are more than 3200 species in the reserve, and the number of invertebrates, which include insects, mollusks and arachnids, varies up to 12 thousand species.
Vegetative world of the protected area
Most of the area is covered with forest tracts, approximately 80-85% of the total area. Form the forests are habitual to us trees - pine and birch. In addition, they come across larch, alder, aspen. Other fauna representatives can also be found near them, among the tall trees are shrubs, mostly small berry areas (blueberry, blueberry, strawberry) or juniper.
Altogether, there are 950 species of plants in the Ilmen Reserve, of which 50 refer to relicts (plants that have remained from past geological epochs), and 20 to endemics (small groups of plants characteristic of a certain locality). Also, 140 different species of mosses, about 480 species of algae and more than 170 species of mushrooms were found here.